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The Right Way to reboot a host with Ansible

For a long time rebooting a host with Ansible has been tricky. The steps are:

  • ssh to the host
  • Reboot the host
  • Disconnect before the host closes your ssh connection
  • Wait some number of seconds to ensure the host has really shut down
  • Attempt to ssh to the host and execute a command
  • Repeat ssh attempt until it works or you give up

Seems clear enough, but if you Google for an answer you may end up at this StackExchange page that gives lots of not-quite-correct answers from 2015 (and one correct answer). Some people suggest checking port 22, but just because ssh is listening doesn’t mean that it’s at state where it’s accepting connections.

The correct answer is use Ansible version 2.7 or greater. 2.7 introduced the reboot command, and now all you have to do is add this to your list of handlers:

- name: Reboot host and wait for it to restart
  reboot:
    msg: "Reboot initiated by Ansible"
    connect_timeout: 5
    reboot_timeout: 600
    pre_reboot_delay: 0
    post_reboot_delay: 30
    test_command: whoami

This handler will:

  • Reboot the host
  • Wait 30 seconds
  • Attempt to connect via ssh and run whoami
  • Disconnect after 5 seconds if it ssh isn’t working
  • Keep attempting to connect for 10 minutes (600 seconds)

Add the directive:

  notify: Reboot host and wait for it to restart

… to any Ansible command that requires a reboot after a change. The host will be rebooted when the playbook finishes, then Ansible will wait until the host is back up and ssh is working before continuing on to the next playbook.

If you need to reboot halfway through a playbook you can force all handlers to execute with the command:

- name: Reboot if necessary
  meta: flush_handlers

I sometimes do that to change something, force a reboot, then verify that the change worked, all within the same playbook.

Hope you found this useful.

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Creating AWS Elastic Filesystems (EFS) with Terraform

The AWS Elastic Filesystem (EFS) gives you an NFSv4-mountable file system with almost unlimited storage capacity. The filesystem I just created to write this article reports 9,007,199,254,739,968 bytes free. In human-readable format df -kh reports 8.0E (Exabytes) of available disk space. In the year 2019, that’s a lot of storage space.

In past articles I’ve shown how to create EFS resources manually, but this week I wanted to programmatically create EFS resources with Terraform so that I could easily create, test, and tear-down EFS and VM resources on AWS.

I also wanted to make sure that my EFS resources are secure, that only VMs within my Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) could access the EFS data, so that no one outside of my VPC could mount or otherwise access the data.

Creating an EFS resource is easy. The Terraform code looks like this:

// efs.tf
resource "aws_efs_file_system" "efs-example" {
creation_token = "efs-example"
performance_mode = "generalPurpose"
throughput_mode = "bursting"
encrypted = "true"
tags = {
Name = "EfsExample"
}
}

This creates the EFS filesystem on AWS. EFS also requires a mount target, which gives your VMs a way to mount the EFS volume using NFS. The Terraform code to create a mount target looks like this:

// efs.tf (continued)
resource "aws_efs_mount_target" "efs-mt-example" {
file_system_id = "${aws_efs_file_system.efs-example.id}"
subnet_id = "${aws_subnet.subnet-efs.id}"
security_groups = ["${aws_security_group.ingress-efs.id}"]
}

The file_system_id is automatically set to the efs-example resource’s ID, which ties the mount target to the EFS file system.

The subnet_id for subnet-efs is a separate /24 subnet I created from my VPC just for EFS. The ingress-efs security group is a separate security group I created for EFS. Let’s cover each one of these separately.

A separate EFS subnet

First off I’ve allocated a /16 subnet for my VPC and I carve out individual /24 subnets from that VPC for each cluster of VMs and/or EFS resources that I add to an AWS availability zone. Here’s how I’ve defined my test environment VPC and EFS subnet:

//network.tf
resource "aws_vpc" "test-env" {
cidr_block = "10.0.0.0/16"
enable_dns_hostnames = true
enable_dns_support = true
tags {
Name = "test-env"
}
}

resource "aws_subnet" "subnet-efs" {
cidr_block = "${cidrsubnet(aws_vpc.test-env.cidr_block, 8, 8)}"
vpc_id = "${aws_vpc.test-env.id}"
availability_zone = "us-east-1a"
}

That will give me the subnet 10.0.8.0/24 for my EFS subnet.

If you want to understand how to use Terraform’s cidrsubnet command to carve out separate subnets, see the article Terraform `cidrsubnet` Deconstructed by Lisa Hagemann. Her article gives excellent examples on how to do just that.

The EFS security group

Finally, I need a security group that only allows traffic between my test environment VMs and my test environment EFS volume. I already have a security group called ingress-test-env that is used to control security for my VMs. For EFS I create another security group that allows inbound traffic on port 2049 (the NFSv4 port), allows egress traffic on any port.

By setting the ingress-efs-test resource’s security_groups attribute to ingress-test-env this only allows network traffic to and from VMs in the ingress-test-env security group to talk to the EFS volume. If you use security_groups like this, you really lock down the EFS volume and you don’t need to set the cidr_blocks attribute at all.

// security.tf
resource "aws_security_group" "ingress-efs-test" {
name = "ingress-efs-test-sg"
vpc_id = "${aws_vpc.test-env.id}"

// NFS
ingress {
security_groups = ["${aws_security_group.ingress-test-env.id}"]
from_port = 2049
to_port = 2049
protocol = "tcp"
}

// Terraform removes the default rule
egress {
security_groups = ["${aws_security_group.ingress-test-env.id}"]
from_port = 0
to_port = 0
protocol = "-1"
}
}

After adding these Terraform files to my cluster configuration and running terraform apply, I end up with a new EFS filesystem that I can mount from any VM running in my VPC.

# mount -t nfs4 -o nfsvers=4.1,rsize=1048576,wsize=1048576,hard,timeo=600,retrans=2,noresvport fs-31337er3.efs.us-east-1.amazonaws.com:/ /mnt/efs
# df -kh
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev 481M 0 481M 0% /dev
tmpfs 99M 744K 98M 1% /run
/dev/xvda1 7.7G 3.0G 4.7G 40% /
tmpfs 492M 0 492M 0% /dev/shm
tmpfs 5.0M 0 5.0M 0% /run/lock
tmpfs 492M 0 492M 0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/loop0 13M 13M 0 100% /snap/amazon-ssm-agent/150
/dev/loop1 87M 87M 0 100% /snap/core/4650
/dev/loop2 90M 90M 0 100% /snap/core/6130
/dev/loop3 18M 18M 0 100% /snap/amazon-ssm-agent/930
tmpfs 99M 0 99M 0% /run/user/1000
fs-31337er3.efs.us-east-1.amazonaws.com:/ 8.0E 0 8.0E 0% /mnt/efs

Hope you found this useful.

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Using Rook+Ceph for persistent storage on Kubernetes

I wanted to install Prometheus and Grafana on my new Kubernetes cluster, but in order for these packages to work they need someplace to store persistent data. I had run performance and scale tests on Ceph when I was working as a Cloud Architect at Seagate, and I’ve played with Rook during the past year, so I decided to install Rook+Ceph and use that for the Kubernetes cluster’s data storage.

Ceph is a distributed storage system that provides object, file, and block storage. On each storage node you’ll find a file system where Ceph stores objects and a Ceph OSD (Object storage daemon) process. On a Ceph cluster you’ll also find Ceph MON (monitoring) daemons, which ensure that the Ceph cluster remains highly available.

Rook acts as a Kubernetes orchestration layer for Ceph, deploying the OSD and MON processes as POD replica sets. From the Rook README file:

Rook turns storage software into self-managing, self-scaling, and self-healing storage services. It does this by automating deployment, bootstrapping, configuration, provisioning, scaling, upgrading, migration, disaster recovery, monitoring, and resource management. Rook uses the facilities provided by the underlying cloud-native container management, scheduling and orchestration platform to perform its duties.

https://github.com/rook/rook/blob/master/README.md

When I created the cluster I built VMs with 40GB hard drives, so with 5 Kubernetes nodes that gives me ~200GB of storage on my cluster, most of which I’ll use for Ceph.

Installing Rook+Ceph

Installing Rook+Ceph is pretty straightforward. On my personal cluster I installed Rook+Ceph v0.9.0 by following these steps:

git clone git@github.com:rook/rook.git
cd rook
git checkout v0.9.0
cd cluster/examples/kubernetes/ceph
kubectl create -f operator.yaml
kubectl create -f cluster.yaml

Rook deploys the PODs in two namespaces, rook-ceph-system and rook-ceph. On my cluster it took about 2 minutes for the PODs to deploy, initialize, and get to a running state. While I was waiting for everything to finish I checked the POD status with:

$ kubectl -n rook-ceph-system get pod
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
rook-ceph-agent-8tsq7 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-agent-b6mgs 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-agent-nff8n 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-agent-vl4zf 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-agent-vtpbj 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-agent-xq5dv 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-operator-85d64cfb99-hrnbs 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-discover-9nqrp 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-discover-b62ds 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-discover-k77gw 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-discover-kqknr 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-discover-v2hhb 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-discover-wbkkq 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
$ kubectl -n rook-ceph get pod
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
rook-ceph-mgr-a-7d884ddc8b-kfxt9 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-mon-a-77cbd865b8-ncg67 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-mon-b-7cd4b9774f-js8n9 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-mon-c-86778859c7-x2qg9 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-osd-0-67fff79666-fcrss 1/1 Running 0 35h
rook-ceph-osd-1-58bd4ccbbf-lsxj9 1/1 Running 1 2d20h
rook-ceph-osd-2-bf99864b5-n4q7v 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-osd-3-577466c968-j8gjr 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-osd-4-6856c5c6c9-92tb6 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-osd-5-8669577f6b-zqrq9 1/1 Running 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-osd-prepare-node1-xfbs7 0/2 Completed 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-osd-prepare-node2-c9f55 0/2 Completed 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-osd-prepare-node3-5g4nc 0/2 Completed 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-osd-prepare-node4-wj475 0/2 Completed 0 2d20h
rook-ceph-osd-prepare-node5-tf5bt 0/2 Completed 0 2d20h

Final tasks

Now I need to do two more things before I can install Prometheus and Grafana:

  • I need to make Rook the default storage provider for my cluster.
  • Since the Prometheus Helm chart requests volumes formatted with the XFS filesystem, I need to install XFS tools on all of my Ubuntu Kubernetes nodes. (XFS is not yet installed by Kubespray by default, although there’s currently a PR up that addresses that issue.)

Make Rook the default storage provider

To make Rook the default storage provider I just run a kubectl command:

kubectl patch storageclass rook-ceph-block -p '{"metadata": {"annotations":{"storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class":"true"}}}'

That updates the rook-ceph-block storage class and makes it the default for storage on the cluster. Any applications that I install will use Rook+Ceph for their data storage if they don’t specify a specific storage class.

Install XFS tools

Normally I would not recommend running one-off commands on a cluster. If you want to make a change to a cluster, you should encode the change in a playbook so it’s applied every time you update the cluster or add a new node. That’s why I submitted a PR to Kubespray to address this problem.

However, since my Kubespray PR has not yet merged, and I built the cluster using Kubespray, and Kubespray uses Ansible, one of the easiest ways to install XFS tools on all hosts is by using the Ansible “run a single command on all hosts” feature:

cd kubespray
export ANSIBLE_REMOTE_USER=ansible
ansible kube-node -i inventory/mycluster/hosts.ini \
--become --become-user root \
-a 'apt-get install -y xfsprogs'

Deploy Prometheus and Grafana

Now that XFS is installed I can successfully deploy Prometheus and Grafana using Helm:

helm install --name prometheus stable/prometheus
helm install --name grafana stable/grafana

The Helm charts install Prometheus and Grafana and create persistent storage volumes on Rook+Ceph for Prometheus Server and Prometheus Alert Manager (formatted with XFS).

Prometheus dashboard

Grafana dashboard

Rook persistent volume for Prometheus Server

Want to learn more?

If you’re interested in learning more about Rook, watch these videos from KubeCon 2018:

Introduction to Rook

Rook Deep Dive

Hope you find this useful.

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Setting up a personal, production-quality Kubernetes cluster with Kubespray

I’ve been setting up and tearing down Kubernetes clusters for testing various things for the past year, mostly using Vagrant/Virtualbox but also some VMware vSphere and OpenStack deployments.

I wanted to set something a little more permanent up at my home lab — a cluster where I could add and remove nodes, run nodes on multiple physical machines, and use different types of compute hardware.

Set up the virtual machines

To get started I used a desktop System76 Wild Dog Pro Linux box (4.5 GHz i7-7700K, 64GB DDR4) and my create-vm script to create six Ubuntu 18.04 “Bionic Beaver” VMs for the cluster:

for n in $(seq 1 6); do
create-vm -n node$n \
-i ./ubuntu-18.04-server-amd64.iso \
-k ./ubuntu.ks \
-r 4096 \
-c 2 \
-s 40
done

With these parameters each VM will have 4GB RAM, 2 VCPUs, and a 40GB hard drive.

Install and configure Kubespray

I cloned Kubespray into a directory and created an Ansible inventory file following the instructions from the README.

git clone git@github.com:kubernetes-sigs/kubespray.git
cd kubespray
pip install -r requirements.txt
rm -Rf inventory/mycluster/
cp -rfp inventory/sample inventory/mycluster
declare -a IPS=($(for n in $(seq 1 6); do get-vm-ip node$n; done))
CONFIG_FILE=inventory/mycluster/hosts.ini \
python3 contrib/inventory_builder/inventory.py ${IPS[@]}

The get-vm-ip script is in the same repo as the create-vm script, and both are described in my Use .iso and Kickstart files to automatically create Ubuntu VMs article.

The inventory.py script generates an Ansible hosts inventory file in inventory/mycluster/hosts.ini with all of your VM IP addresses.

I like to add one variable override to the bottom of hosts.ini which copies the kubectl credentials over to my host machine. That way I can run kubectl commands directly from my desktop. The extra lines to add to the bottom of hosts.ini are:

[all:vars]
kubectl_localhost=true

Install Kubernetes

To install Kubernetes on the VMs I run the Kubespray cluster.yaml playbook:

export ANSIBLE_REMOTE_USER=ansible
ansible-playbook -i inventory/mycluster/hosts.ini \
--become --become-user=root cluster.yml

Once the playbooks have finished, you should have a fully-operational Kubernetes cluster running on your desktop.

At this point you should be able to query the cluster from your desktop using kubectl. For example:

$ kubectl cluster-info
Kubernetes master is running at https://192.168.122.251:6443
coredns is running at https://192.168.122.251:6443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/coredns:dns/proxy
kubernetes-dashboard is running at https://192.168.122.251:6443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/https:kubernetes-dashboard:/proxy
To further debug and diagnose cluster problems, use 'kubectl cluster-info dump'.
$ kubectl get nodes
NAME STATUS ROLES AGE VERSION
node1 Ready master,node 3d6h v1.13.0
node2 Ready master,node 3d6h v1.13.0
node3 Ready node 3d6h v1.13.0
node4 Ready node 3d6h v1.13.0
node5 Ready node 3d6h v1.13.0
node6 Ready node 3d6h v1.13.0
$ kubectl get pods --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
kube-system calico-kube-controllers-67f89845f-6zbvx 1/1 Running 1 3d6h
kube-system calico-node-jh7ng 1/1 Running 2 3d6h
kube-system calico-node-l9vfb 1/1 Running 2 3d6h
kube-system calico-node-mqxjx 1/1 Running 2 3d6h
...

Set up the Kubernetes Dashboard

One of the first things I like to do is set up access to the Kubernetes dashboard. First I set up a service account for the admin user:

$ cat ~/Projects/k8s-cluster/dashboard-adminuser.yaml
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
name: admin-user
namespace: kube-system

---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
name: admin-user
roleRef:
apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
kind: ClusterRole
name: cluster-admin
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
name: admin-user
namespace: kube-system
$ kubectl apply -f ~/Projects/k8s-cluster/dashboard-adminuser.yaml

Next I get the bearer token for the user account:

$ kubectl -n kube-system describe secret $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | grep admin-user | awk '{print $1}')

Finally I plug the dashboard URL that I got from kubectl cluster-info into my browser, select “Token” authentication, and cut and paste in the bearer token to log into the system.

Once logged in, an overview of my cluster pops up:

With a minimal amount of working compute infrastructure, it’s easy to set up your own production-quality Kubernetes cluster using Kubespray.

Hope you find this useful.

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How to get the IP address of a KVM/virsh VM

Since virsh domifaddr doesn’t work to get the IP addresses of VMs on a bridged network, I wrote a get-vm-ip script (which you can download from Github) which uses this to get the IP of a running VM:

HOSTNAME=[your vm name]
MAC=$(virsh domiflist $HOSTNAME | awk '{ print $5 }' | tail -2 | head -1)
arp -a | grep $MAC | awk '{ print $2 }' | sed 's/[()]//g'

The virsh command gets the MAC address, the last line finds the IP address using arp.

Hope you find this useful.

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